Compilation and translation: Saeed Mahmoud Kalaye, Mohammad Gholamnejad, Hamid Mahmoud Kalaye


Ceramic Tile Association of North America; An organization formed by North American tile and ceramic manufacturers that provides services for the development of knowledge related to the tile industry, specifically installation knowledge. This organization has prepared a booklet as an installation guide, which is based on American standards regarding materials and their installation. Today, with the development of this institution throughout North America, the aforementioned instruction, which was first published in 1954, has been reprinted many times and is cited throughout this country as the basis of work.


pattern, template; A pattern for repetitive designs or a stone processing and preparation process.


marble concrete, marble mosaic (in-situ mosaic); The flooring is created by using a combination of granite and marble pebbles on a cement or resin base and its surface is polished after the work is finished.


Texture; The modified appearance of building stone by one or more mechanical operations

Textured Finish

textured finish; Any stone finish that makes its surface uneven due to aesthetic reasons or resistance to sliding in the direction of pedestrians.

Thermal Finish

Thermal finishing (flame); A type of polishing in which the surface of the stone is exposed to high heat for a short period of time.

Thin Stone

thin facade stone; A stone whose thickness is less than 50 mm.


door threshold; A flat stone beam or worn tool that is placed at the foot of the entrance door and its upper surface is seen at the level of the ground. One of its uses is to differentiate between two adjacent spaces.


stone tile, stone mosaic; A thin and regular piece of stone (in terms of dimensions and pattern) with a thickness of less than 20 mm, whose dimensions will be 60 mm in most cases.

Tilt Shop Cart

Wheelbarrow carrying stone; A device used to move stone in a factory, or cut pieces in a shop. These devices have a kind of bottom whose angle changes to some extent and in this way they are able to move the stones vertically.

Tin Oxide

tin oxide; A powder that is used for polishing the surface of granite and looks like talc. These materials are applied to the surface of the stone using a felt plate and the polishing is done.


tolerance limit; The permissible limit for being different from the specified dimensions.

Tooled Finish

Engraved stone facade; A type of finish that usually creates 4, 6 or 8 concave and parallel grooves on the surface of the stone at 25 mm intervals.


semi-transparent, semi-transparent; One of the characteristics of some light-colored marbles and some light-colored marbles is that they allow light to pass through them.


travertine; A type of porous limestone that is among decorative stones. This stone is left over from the sediments of the mineral waters of caves or hot springs or from the sediments of the bottom of the seas and rivers, which are seen in relatively wide areas. Some types of travertine are commercially marketed as marble after polishing and polishing.


floor stone; A part of the stairs that is flat and smooth and traffic is carried out on it.


Zoar, framing; A kind of framing and edging for walls, openings or other similar elements in the interior and exterior of the building, which are executed in forms such as wall cornice, wall framing, wall lip and window frame.

Tumbled Finish

Polishing with rotary abrasive tools; A type of finish that makes the appearance of the stone similar to old stones and weathered erosion, and this is done through sand, pebbles and small metal balls that cause wear on the surface of the stone.

Ultimate Capacity

final capacity; The maximum load that a metal harness can withstand and applying more force will cause this part to break. This number must be divided by the safety factor in order to obtain the permitted capacity.


cut from below; A kind of cut from the lower surface that leads to the subject being suspended in the upper part.


unit piece; A piece of building stone that has been polished and processed in the form of face stone or massive stone.

Urinal Screen

water separator plate; A thin stone plate installed as a partition wall between toilets.

Vacuum Cups

glass (stone) sucker; A tool for lifting and carrying thin and smooth stones that is similar to a cup and has a concave surface. In this device, the air suction by the device causes a strong connection between the stone and the device, and to prevent air leakage from the edges and to make the device safe, a sealing gasket is installed on its end edge.

Vacuum Lifter

space elevator; Any kind of device for moving stone that uses a cup-shaped tool and its required force is provided by creating a vacuum or suction.

Vein Cut

vein cut; A kind of cut in stone blocks that is made perpendicular to the bed of stone formation and exposes the veins and layers of the stone.


vein, ore vein; An irregular and narrow layer, streak or element that contrasts with its surrounding materials in terms of color and texture or both.


stone facade, facing stone; A kind of stone that has a non-structural use and is used in the facade of the building for the purpose of decoration or protection of the lower layers.


ventilation port;


Kawiz, cavity; A natural cavity in a rock that may contain crystals or layers of minerals. It is often found in dolomite and limestone. This element can be formed as a result of the dissolution or recrystallization of minerals. The dimensions of these holes are not limited, but usually vary from a fraction of a centimeter to several centimeters. These cavities may be enclosed by layers of crystalline or cluster minerals.


Rokob; A stone coating that is used in the interior to cover the lower parts of the walls.

Wall Tie

Masonry fasteners; In the term of masonry, it refers to a type of restraint, which is usually in the form of a metal belt, and it is used to create a secure connection between the front wall and the load-bearing wall in double-walled walls. These fasteners are placed in the mortar and are fixed during installation, and therefore, they do not need to create a groove, crotch, or tongue.

Walls, bearing

porter wall; A type of load-bearing wall that is able to withstand gravity forces in addition to its own weight.

Walls, cavity

double wall; A type of wall whose inner and outer walls are separated from each other and the air flows in this part, but they are connected with each other using fasteners.


roof gutter; The slope of the stone pieces that leads to rain water.

Water Jet

water cutting machine; A device that creates controlled cuts in the rock by directing water at a very high pressure through a tiny pore along with abrasive materials. The cutting lines in this method are very precise and thin, and complex shapes can be created on the stone with the help of this method and computer system.

Water Recycling System

water recycling system; Any type of water recycling system used in stone processing and preparation workshops that provides conditions where water can be reused by filtering or neutralizing the chemical properties of water.

Water Repellent

moisture insulation; A variety of chemical liquid compounds that are applied to the surface of the material and thereby reduce the amount of moisture absorption by the surface of the stone, but it is said that they do not completely prevent it from breathing. This issue differentiates these materials with coatings such as sealers that prevent materials from breathing.

Water Table

watering can A strip of material that protrudes from the surface of the wall and is usually executed at a level close to the ground (usually on the plinth) and its upper edge has a small chamfer and its lower surface also has a groove, thereby managing to repel rainwater. .

Water-jet Finish

Finishing with water cutting machine; A kind of polishing and improving the appearance of the stone surface that is done using water under high pressure.


being waterproof;


wax work, stone plastering; The process of filling small holes and spills and defects of the stone surface using liquid alcohol varnish, cabinet putty or special polyester compounds. In the construction stone industry, this process is different from the use of wax putty used in polishing the stone surface.


Clearing; Removing materials or disturbing factors from the stone surface using abrasive methods.


weathering; Natural transformations of materials such as stone as a result of chemical and physical processes caused by atmospheric actions, soil, surface water, underground water or temperature changes are called weathering.


with splitting wedge; The process of splitting rock using wedges in the place of weak layers of rock or the holes in it and finally applying compressive force to the wedges.

Weep Holes

The wall’s reputation, the sweat hole; Holes in the place of fastening the facade, or structural parts supporting the facade to allow moisture and rainwater to pass from the middle space of the wall to the outside of the building.

Wire Sawing

cutting with wire; This method is that they first dig two holes perpendicular to each other in the area of the desired block (the holes are connected to each other), then pass the steel wire through the holes and pull the wire to remove the stone in the mentioned place. This movement creates a groove in the stone, and an abrasive material such as quartz and water is poured into the created groove to reduce the cutting of the stone, which is usually less hard than quartz. Today, the term is mainly applied to the cutting process with cables equipped with diamond abrasive elements (at regular intervals) that are cooled using water.


جدار، تیغه؛ قسمت داخلی یا خارجی یک دیوار دوجداره را جدار یا تیغه می‌نامند.